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NEUROPEPTIDE W; NPW

NEUROPEPTIDE W; NPW

Alternative titles; symbolsG PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR 8 LIGAND; L8GPCR8 LIGANDOther entities represented in this entry:PREPRONEUROPEPTIDE W, INCLUDED; PPNPW, INC...

Alternative titles; symbols

  • G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR 8 LIGAND; L8
  • GPCR8 LIGAND

Other entities represented in this entry:

  • PREPRONEUROPEPTIDE W, INCLUDED; PPNPW, INCLUDED
  • PREPRO-G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR 8 LIGAND, INCLUDED; PPL8, INCLUDED
  • PREPRO-GPCR8 LIGAND, INCLUDED
  • GPCR8 LIGAND WITH C-TERMINAL EXTENSION, INCLUDED; L8C, INCLUDED

HGNC Approved Gene Symbol: NPW

Cytogenetic location: 16p13.3 Genomic coordinates (GRCh38): 16:2,019,784-2,020,754 (from NCBI)

▼ Description
Neuropeptide W (NPW) is an endogenous peptide ligand for GPR8 (600731), a G protein-coupled receptor.

▼ Cloning and Expression
By searching an EST database for homologs of the purified bovine Npb peptide (607996), Tanaka et al. (2003) identified prepro-NPW (PPNPW). PPNPW contains 165 amino acids. An N-terminal leader sequence is followed by a putative 30-amino acid mature NPW peptide, which is characterized by an N-terminal tryptophan and a pair of arginine residues at positions 24 and 25. Tanaka et al. (2003) found that PPNPW contains a CTG start codon instead of ATG, and they verified efficient translation from the CTG start codon by in vitro translation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In situ hybridization of mouse brain showed expression confined to specific nuclei in the midbrain and brainstem. Tanaka et al. (2003) also cloned mouse Npw.

Brezillon et al. (2003) stated that the mature NPW peptide contains either 23 amino acids or 30 amino acids, depending upon the diarginine motif utilized during proteolytic processing. They designated the shorter peptide L8, the longer peptide L8C, and the prepropeptide PPL8. PPL8 and PPL7 share 23% amino acid identity overall and up to 66% identity in the processed peptides. RT-PCR detected high expression of PPL8 in substantia nigra, lymphoblastic leukemia, fetal kidney, colorectal adenocarcinoma, and trachea.

▼ Gene Function
Tanaka et al. (2003) found that both brominated and nonbrominated NPW stimulated the aggregation of melanosomes in Xenopus laevis melanophores transfected with GPR7 (600730) and GPR8 cDNA. The brominated form had slightly lower potency for both receptors than the nonbrominated form.

Using an aequorin-based functional assay, Brezillon et al. (2003) determined that the shorter processed PPL8 peptide, L8, was the most potent agonist of GPR8. In competition binding experiments, both L7C and L8C were more potent than the shorter peptides in binding GPR7.

▼ Mapping
By genomic sequence analysis, Brezillon et al. (2003) mapped the NPW gene to chromosome 16q13.1. However, Gross (2015) mapped the NPW gene to chromosome 16p13.3 based on an alignment of the NPW sequence (GenBank AB084276) with the genomic sequence (GRCh38).

Tags: 16p13.3